Milligan, S., Nestor, B., Antúnez, M., & Schotter, E. R. (2023). Out of sight, out of mind: Foveal processing is necessary for semantic integration of words into a sentence context. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance.

Schotter, E. R., Milligan, S., & Estevez, V. M. (2023). Event‐related potentials show that parafoveal vision is insufficient for semantic integration. Psychophysiology, e14246.

Caliskan, N., Milligan, S., & Schotter, E. R. (2023). Readers scrutinize lexical familiarity only in the absence of expectations: Evidence from lexicality effects on event-related potentials. Brain and Language, 238, 105232.


Milligan, S., Antúnez, M., Barber, H. A., & Schotter, E. R. (2022). Are eye movements and EEG on the same page?: A coregistration study on parafoveal preview and lexical frequency. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, online first

Antúnez, M., Milligan, S., Hernández-Cabrera, J.A.,Barber, H.A., & Schotter, E.R. (2022). Semantic parafoveal processing in natural reading: Insight from fixation-related potentials & eye movements. Psychophysiology, 59, e13986


Lowry, M., Dubé, C., & Schotter, E.R. (2021). Evaluating theories of bilingual language control using computational models. Journal of Memory and Language, 117, 104195.

Fennell, A.M., Bugos, J.A., Payne, B.R., & Schotter, E.R., (2021). Music is similar to language in terms of working memory interference. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 28, 512-525.


Schotter, E.R., Johnson, E., & Lieberman, A.M. (2020). The sign superiority effect: Lexical status facilitates peripheral handshape identification for deaf signers. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 46(11), 1397–1410.

Reichle, E.D., & Schotter, E.R. (2020). A computational analysis of the constraints on parallel word identification. Proceedings of the Cognitive Sciences Society, Toronto, Canada.


Schotter, E.R., & Fennell, A., (2019). Readers can identify the meanings of words without looking at them: Evidence from regressive eye movements. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 26, 1697–1704.

Schotter, E.R. & Payne, B.R.(2019). Eye movements and comprehension are important to reading. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 23, 811-812.

Schotter, E.R., Li, C., & Gollan, T.H. (2019). What reading aloud reveals about speaking: Regressive saccades implicate a failure to monitor, not inattention, in the prevalence of intrusion errors on function words. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72, 2032-2045.

Schotter, E.R., von der Malsburg, T., & Leinenger, M. (2019). Forced Fixations, Trans-saccadic Integration, and Word Recognition: Evidence for a Hybrid Mechanism of Saccade Triggering in Reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 45, 677-688


Schotter, E.R. (2018). Reading ahead by hedging our bets on seeing the future: Eye tracking and electrophysiology evidence for parafoveal lexical processing and saccadic control by partial word recognition. Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 68, 263-298.

Schotter, E.R., Leinenger, M., & von der Malsburg, T. (2018). When your mind skips what your eyes fixate: How forced fixations lead to comprehension illusions in reading. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 25, 1884-1890.

Belanger, N.N., Lee, M., & Schotter, E.R. (2018). Young skilled deaf readers have an enhanced perceptual span in reading. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 291-301.


Schotter, E.R., Pollatsek, A., & Rayner, K. (2017). Reading. In Reference Module in Neuroscience and Behavioral Psychology, Elsevier.


Schotter, E.R. & Leinenger, M. (2016). Reversed preview benefit effects: Forced fixations emphasize the importance of parafoveal vision for efficient reading. Journal Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 42, 2039-2067.

Schotter, E.R. & Jia, A. (2016). Semantic and Plausibility Preview Benefit Effects in English: Evidence from Eye Movements. Journal Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 42, 1839-1866.

Clifton, C., Ferreira, F., Henderson, J., Inhoff, A.W., Liversedge, S., Reichle, E.D., & Schotter, E.R. (2016). Eye movements in reading and information processing: Keith Rayner’s 40 year legacy. Journal of Memory & Language, 86, 1-19.

Rayner, K., Schotter, E.R., Masson, M.J.E., Potter, M.C., & Treiman, R. (2016). So much to read, so little time: How do we read, and can speed reading help? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 17, 4-34.


Schotter, E.R., Lee, M., Reiderman, M., & Rayner, K. (2015). The effect of contextual constraint on parafoveal processing in reading.Journal of Memory & Language, 83, 118-139.

Schotter, E.R. & Rayner, K. (2015). The work of the eyes during reading. In A. Pollatsek & R. Treiman (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Reading(pp. 44-62). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Angele, B., Schotter, E.R., Slattery, T.J., Tenenbaum, T.L, Bicknell, K., & Rayner, K. (2015). Do successor effects in reading reflect lexical parafoveal processing? Evidence from corpus- based and experimental eye movement data. Journal of Memory & Language, 79-80 76-96.


Schotter, E.R., Bicknell, K., Howard, I., Levy, R., & Rayner, K. (2014). Task effects reveal cognitive flexibility responding to frequency and predictability: Evidence from eye movements in reading and proofreading. Cognition, 131, 1-27.

Schotter, E.R., Jia, A., Ferreira, V.S., & Rayner, K. (2014). Preview benefit in speaking occurs regardless of preview timing. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 755-762.

Schotter, E.R., Reichle, E.D., & Rayner, K. (2014). Rethinking Parafoveal Processing in Reading: Serial Attention Models can Account for Semantic Preview Benefit and n+2 Preview Effects. Visual Cognition, 22, 309-333.

Schotter, E.R., Tran, R., & Rayner, K. (2014). Don’t believe what you read (only once): Comprehension is supported by regressions during reading. Psychological Science, 25, 1218-1226.

Gollan, T.H., Schotter, E.R., Gomez, J., Murillo, M., & Rayner, K. (2014). Multiple levels of bilingual control: Evidence from language intrusions in reading aloud. Psychological Science, 25, 585-595.

Rayner, K. & Schotter, E.R. (2014). Semantic preview benefit in reading English: The effect of initial letter capitalization. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40, 1617-1628.

Rayner, K., Schotter, E.R., & Drieghe, D. (2014). Lack of parafoveal semantic preview benefit in reading revisited. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 1067-1072.


Schotter, E.R. (2013). Synonyms provide semantic preview benefit in English. Journal of Memory and Language, 69, 619-633.

Schotter, E.R., Ferreira, V.S., & Rayner, K. (2013). Parallel object activation and attentional gating of information: Evidence from eye movements in the multiple object naming paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 39, 365-374.

Schotter, E.R. & Rayner, K. (2013). Eye movements in reading. In E. Perego (Ed.), Eye Tracking in Audiovisual Translation (pp. 83-104). Rome: Aracne.

Ferreira, V.S. & Schotter, E.R. (2013). Do verb bias effects on sentence production reflect sensitivity to comprehension or production factors? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 1548-1571.

Rayner, K., Angele, B, Schotter, E.R., & Bicknell, K. (2013). On the processing of canonical word order during eye fixations in reading: Do readers process transposed word previews? Visual Cognition, 21, 353-381.

Rayner, K. & Schotter, E.R. (2013). Eye movements during reading. In H. Pashler (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Mind. (pp. 338-340). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, inc.

Wang, H.-C., Schotter, E.R., Angele, B., Yang, J., Simovici, D., Pomplun, M., & Rayner, K. (2013). Using singular value decomposition to investigate the configuration of Chinese characters: Evidence from eye movements during reading. Journal of Research in Reading, 36, S35-S50.


Schotter, E.R., Angele, B., & Rayner, K. (2012). Parafoveal processing in reading. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 74, 5-35.

Schotter, E.R., Blythe, H.I., Kirkby, J.A., Rayner, K., Holliman, N.S. & Liversedge, S.P. (2012). Binocular coordination: Reading stereoscopic sentences in depth. PLoS ONE, 7.

Schotter, E.R., Gerety, C. & Rayner, K. (2012). Heuristics and criterion setting during selective encoding in visual decision-making: evidence from eye movements. Visual Cognition, 20, 1110-1129.

Schotter, E.R., & Rayner, K. (2012). Eye movements and word recognition during reading. In J. Adelman (Ed.), Visual Word Recognition Volume 2: Meaning and Context, Individuals and Development (pp. 73-101). New York: Psychology Press.

Rayner, K., Pollatsek, A. & Schotter, E.R. (2012). Reading: Word identification and eye movements. In A. Healy (Ed.) Handbook of Psychology, Volume 4: Experimental Psychology (pp. 548-577). Hoboken: Wiley.


Schotter, E.R.(2011). Eye Movements as an index of linguistic processing in language production. Studies of Psychology and Behavior, 9, 16-23.

Slattery, T., Schotter, E.R., Berry, R. & Rayner, K. (2011). Parafoveal and foveal processing of abbreviations during reading: Making a case for case. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 37, 1022-1031.


Schotter, E.R., Berry, R., McKenzie, C., & Rayner, K. (2010). Gaze bias: Selective encoding and liking effects. Visual Cognition, 18, 1113-1132

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